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Credenhill Camp

SMR Number
: 906
Grid Reference
: SO 451 446
Parish
: CREDENHILL, HEREFORDSHIRE

Irregular form generally following contours. High inner rampart, small outer rampart with medial ditch at present time inner rampart 23-40' above ditch bottom and average of 12' above spoil at base of scarp. Outer rampart now destroyed in several places and ditch infilled. Three entrances: SE corner has inturned ramparts (damage on N side); middle of E side inner ramparts inturned also approached by covered way; NW corner is modern, but may occupy place of earlier entrance (but no proof). (1)
Encloses 20ha 'Univallate'. Excavations in 1963 established site occupied c390BC - AD75. Four-posters discovered. (3) A number of features associated with the hill-fort were noted during a rapid survey of the area. These include two small enclosures, embanked trackways, and a possible postern gate. (8) During a site visit a number of terraces, low banks and levelled areas within the hillfort were noted. It is believed that at least some of the terraces and platforms could represent hut platforms. Other features may represent woodland boundaries dating from the medieval and post-medieval periods. One wide but subtle bank which appears to possibly form an earlier rampart pertaining to the expansion and development of the hillfort. (9)
Survey work was carried out in 2003. This identified a number of features on the fort itself, including features such as springs, and erosion from drains. The work suggests that there may be three contemporary entrances to the east, southeast and southwest. The present north entrtance needs further work to establish its antiquity. The gap on the west side of the fort is probably a later breach(10) (11)
A three-year excavation project was undertaken at the site between 2007 and 2009. In 2008, three new areas were targeted, and an area examined in 2007 was re-opened and expanded. Complex archaeology was encountered comprising metalled surfaces, possible beam slots and other cut features dating to the Roman and Iron Age periods of use of the site. An area within the internal quarry ditch just south of the eastern entrance was opened and excavated to an extensive metalled surface associated with Romano-British artefacts. A slot was excavated through the rampart, which at this point appears to be of two phases, though with little structural complexity. The time interval between the two phases may have been as little as a season. An intact buried soil with a very clear grass or turf horizon was preserved below the rampart. (12)
Six areas were excavated in 2009, and the area opened in 2007 and 2008 was re-opened and completed. The archaeology here comprised cut features mainly of the early Romano-British period, including a series of large parallel timber foundation slots, and rubbish disposal pits. Preliminary analysis of the ceramic assemblage suggests Roman military activity possibly associated with the use of the site as a supply base for troops campaigning up the Wye Valley into Wales, apparently during a pre-Flavian period of operations. A significant assemblage of later Bronze Age ceramics, and a representative sample of Iron Age wares indicated the Prehistoric occupation component. An evaluation was carried out in 2008 prior to tree felling. Four trenches were excavated, and archaeological deposits were recorded in three of them. In two cases these appear to be beam slots possibly associated with Roman military buildings. The only artefacts recovered were two small fragments of Iron Age pottery though these are likely to be residual. Evidence of ploughing, probably during the Medieval period, was also apparent. The results of the evaluation were used to agree a methodology for monitoring timber felling and extraction from the site. (13)

Monument Type(s)

  1. HILLFORT (Early Iron Age to 2nd Century - 800 BC to 200 AD)

Associated Files

    Sources and Further Reading

    1. ---SHE18985 - Unpublished Report: Boucher, A and Eisel, J. 2004. Park Wood Credenhill Archaeological Survey, Herefordshire: Archaeological Landscape Survey and Site Assessment. Archaeological Investigations Ltd. 595.
    2. <1>SHE132 - Bibliographic reference: Royal Commission on Historical Monuments. 1932. Inventory of Monuments, Herefordshire East, Vol II. Herefordshire East, Volume II. II,65.
    3. <2>SHE12647 - Bibliographic reference: Stanford, S C. 1963. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 37,331.
    4. <3>SHE12634 - Bibliographic reference: Stanford, S C. 1970. Credenhill Camp, Herefordshire: an Iron Age Hill-fort capital. The Archaeological Journal. 127. Pages 82-129.
    5. <4>SHE2162 - Bibliographic reference: 1975. Guide to Prehistoric & Roman Sites. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. p16.
    6. <5>SHE12635 - Bibliographic reference: Stanford, S C. 1981. Archaeology of Welsh Marches. 94.
    7. <6>SHE16398 - Bibliographic reference: Anon. Woolhope, various articles,. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XIV.
    8. <7>SHE16398 - Bibliographic reference: Anon. Woolhope, various articles,. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Pages 151.
    9. <8>SHE15399 - Unpublished Report: Hoverd, Tim. 2003. A Reconnaissance Survey of Credenhill Hill-fort, Herefordshire. Herefordshire Archaeology. 33.
    10. <9>SHE16155 - Unpublished Report: Ray, Keith and Tim Hoverd. 10/12/2004. Archaeological Reconnaissance. Surveys of Sites in Herefordshire 1999. Herefordshire Archaeology. 8. 8.
    11. <10>SHE18465 - Bibliographic reference: Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 2003. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Volume 51. 2003. 99.
    12. <11>SHE18985 - Unpublished Report: Boucher, A and Eisel, J. 2004. Park Wood Credenhill Archaeological Survey, Herefordshire: Archaeological Landscape Survey and Site Assessment. Archaeological Investigations Ltd. 595.
    13. <12>SHE18754 - Article in serial: Shoesmith, Ron. 2008. Archaeology, 2008, Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 56, 2008. 114-131. 127.
    14. <13>SHE18758 - Article in serial: Shoesmith, Ron. 2009. Archaeology, 2009, Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 57, 2009. 134-162. 153.

    Associated Finds

    1. FHE3237 - SHERD (1st Century to 2nd Century - 1 AD to 200 AD)
    2. FHE3238 - SHERD (Bronze Age - 2400 BC to 801 BC)
    3. FHE3239 - SHERD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)

    Associated events

    Protected status

    1. Scheduled Monument 61: Credenhill camp

    Associated Historic Landscape Character Records

    1. HHE262 - Woodland - Woodland
    Last Updated: 23/07/2010 12:35:57