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Referencing Herefordshire Through Time

Notes for students and other users on how to reference the Historic Environment Record and the Herefordshire Through Time website

1. Information from the Historic Environment Record (HER) Database

If you are writing an essay or dissertation and you make a reference to an HER entry, you must be careful to scroll down to see which particular source was used to draw up the HER entry. Any description of a site or monument is either a composite of the views of several authors, excavation reports or an entry based on a personal observation. Each statement in the HER entry will be referenced to at least one source. You should, therefore, in addition to citing the Herefordshire HER number, also quote the sources(s) the particular information you are using has been taken from. The HER entry in itself is not a primary source!

You will find that each source is footnoted within each HER entry. Sometimes several numbers are put together, indicating that the information is taken from several sources.

For example, if you want to quote the HER entry on Hereford Castle, you must carefully look at which part of the entry you are referring to. The written sources are footnoted within each entry. If you want to cite, "The castle earthworks and house called Castle Cliff occupies the south east angle of the walled town said to have been built by William fitz Osbern soon after the Conquest.", you must find the original source, which is Number 8, Noble, F., "Medieval boroughs of West Herefordshire",Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. If the information is gained from a watching brief or excavation, this will also be foot-noted. The Events section (you must scroll further down the page to see the Events entries) refers to all excavations, watching briefs and other work associated with a given site.

The correct foot-note for the above-mentioned quote would be:

Herefordshire HER Record 456, information from Noble, F., 1964, "Medieval boroughs of West Herefordshire", Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field ClubXXXVIII Part 1, 62-71.

The reference should also include (if relevant) the year of publication, the page number (if given) and, in the case of a journal or periodical, the volume number.

There are nearly 100 Historic Environment Records (HERs) in Great Britain, so you must be sure to state Herefordshire HER. Some HERs are still referred to by the older title of SMRs (Sites and Monuments Records), and there is also a number of UADs (Urban Archaeological Databases) which cover English cities.

2. Text from other sections

At the bottom of each section you will see the name of the original author. You should therefore footnote any quotes with:

The author's name, Herefordshire Through Time and the URL in the address box of any given page.

For example, Toria Forsyth-Moser, Herefordshire Through Time,

3. The guest author section

Quote the name of the author, the title of the essay, Herefordshire Through Time and the relevant URL.

For example, Roz Lowe, "Sir Samuel Meyrick and Goodrich Court", Herefordshire Through Time,

[Original author: Toria Forsyth-Moser, 2004]