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Cathedral Church of St Mary and St Ethelbert, Hereford

SMR Number
: 386
Grid Reference
: SO 5100 3979
Parish
: HEREFORD CITY, HEREFORDSHIRE
ST JOHN

FULL DESCRIPTION ON SMR WEBSITE UNDER HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF HEREFORDSHIRE.
Existing cathedral church built during first half of C12 and included nave, aisles and imposing west front. A western tower was added (probably between 1300-10) over the most western bay of the nave. This rested on the two westernmost piers of the nave and on the Norman west front. About the same time, the north and south aisles were reconstructed. Window inserted in west wall of nave in early C15. 1786: west tower collapsed, bringing down west front and adjoining part of nave and aisles. Rebuilt (by James Wyatt) one bay to the east, very plain. Altered in C19. (1)
The font is of very light grey sandstone. The circular step below it is modern, and is inlaid with coloured mosaic. The rim of the bowl has a sculptured key pattern frieze. Below it is a sculptured twelve-arch arcade containing figures of the Apostles. The faces of eleven have been chiselled off, probably during the Civil War. The Hereford font probably dates to the completion of the nave, c.1140-5. It has a cover of flat oak, possibly dating to Wyatt's restoration of the cathedral in 1796, when the font was moved to its present position. There are three almost exact replicas of this font in Gloucestershire (at Rendcombe, Newnham-on-Severn and Mitcheldean. (2)
Putta given church in Mercia in 676. Ethelbert murdered 792 and buried in Hereford City. Venerated as Saint so cathedral dedicated both to him and to Our Lady. Early in C10 Bishop Aethelstan rebuilt the cathedral. It was sacked shortly afterwards. (3)
Excavation at North Porch in 1992. (9)
Salvage recording of service trench in Lady Arbour and Chapter House Yard during November 1998 noted only a few human bones and two floor tiles. (15)
Excavation of an electricity cable trench immediately adjacent to the cathedral's west end revealed high quality deposits, including many fragments of architectural stonework. Traces of the original west range of the Bishop's Cloister were found on the S side of the cathedral. (16)
Survey and analysis of the quatrefoil band on the cathedral tower's west face showed that it is the only surviving medieval section, the sections on the other three faces having been replaced in recent years. The surviving stretch is in poor condition and probably should also be replaced. (17)
Reference to writings of John Aubrey in Monumenta Britannica with comments on the architecture of Hereford Cathedral. (18)
Article on Hereford spires including detail about the cathedral spire. (20)
Article on the administration of the Diocese of Hereford under Bishop Mascall (1404-16). (21)
Article on John Trillek, Bishop of Hereford from 1344 to 1360. (22)
James Bromwich and Hereford Cathedral's Audley Chapel. (23)
(24)
Examination of the 11th century tympanum on the external face of the wall of the presbytery triforium. (25)
Life of Robert de Melun, Bishop of Hereford (1163-1167). (26)
A detailed look into the life and family of Joan de Bohun, to whom it is believed that the tomb in the Lady Chapel belongs. (27)
A history and examination of the architecture of the Chapter House. Illustrations included. (28)
Examination of the cathedral bosses in the north-east and south-east transepts, and the choir and nave aisles. Photographs included. (29)
Article on the rebuilding of Hereford Cathedral between 1786 and 1796. (30)
A number of carvings were examined and photographed in the Lady Chapel, Choir and North Transept whilst scaffolding had been erected for renovation work. (31)
Article on the lost brass of the Cantilupe shrine. (32)
Early watercolours of Hereford Cathedral with photographs. (33)
Detailed article on the shrine of St Thomas Cantilupe in Hereford Cathedral. (34)
(35)
2002 AP of Hereford Cathedral and Bishop's Palace (36)
2002 AP of Hereford Cathedral and surrounding townscape (37)
2002 AP of Hereford Cathedral (38)
Chris Musson, 2002's colour slide aerial photograph catalogue provides an aerial vie of the cathedral and the associated structures and close (39) (40) (41)
Chris Musson's 2003 colour slide aerial photograph catalogue (42) (43)
UAD notes: Most recent book (publ 2000) on all aspects of the Cathedral - with multi-chapter sections covering: period by period history, architecture and furnishings, music and worship, library and archives, the school and hospitals, and appendices on the constitution, office-holders since 1300, and charities (44). Cross-referenced monuments are those within the church; for other monuments in the close, please refer to the general cathedral close monument record 47260. Similarly, constituent events listed in this record are those in or connected to the Cathedral Church only; for other events within the Close please refer to monument 47260 (NJB 27-06-08)
Mappa Mundi (new library) excavations assessment report (45)
A detailed drawn and photographic record was made of the East Face of the Lady Chapel in 1996. (46)
Headland Archaeology underook a small excavation to judge impact of a proposed SAS memorial on the western wall of the Catheral. The archaeological excavation assessed the extent and layout of the features at risk of being disturbed by the construction of the SAS memorial. The wall feature identified during the excavation is likely to date to the rebuilding of the cathedral’s western front in the late C18th. Due to the solidity of the wall, the plinth for the artwork installation can be installed on top of revetment wall (1009) negating the need for its removal. On the basis of this approach, no deposits of archaeological significance will be adversely affected by the construction of the memorial. (47)

Monument Type(s)

  1. CATHEDRAL (Early Medieval to 19th Century - 410 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Files

Sources and Further Reading

  1. <14> SHE10327 - Unpublished Report: Morriss, R K. 1991. Hereford Cathedral. Archaeological Implications of the Proposed Chained Library Building to the SW of the Cathedral.. City of Hereford Archaeology Unit. 96. Rep No. 96.
  2. <4> SHE10741 - Bibliographic reference: Pevsner, N. 1963. Herefordshire. The Buildings of England. 146.
  3. <7> SHE12133 - Bibliographic reference: Salzman, L F. 1966. Building in England down to 1540, a documentary history.
  4. <9> SHE12784 - Unpublished Report: Stone, R. 1992. An Interim Report on the Excavation of a Trench across the North Porch. City of Hereford Archaeology Unit. 159. HAS159.
  5. <6> SHE13366 - Bibliographic reference: Winnington Ingram. 1972. Monumental Brasses in Hereford Cathedral.
  6. <27> SHE13956 - Bibliographic reference: Maclean, Rev D A L. 1961. Some observations on the family of Lady Joan de Bohun. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXVII 1961. Pages 9.
  7. <10> SHE14652 - Bibliographic reference: Thurlby, Malcolm. 1995. Hereford Cathedral: The romanesque Fabric. Medieval Art, Architecture and Archaeology at Hereford edited by Whitehead David, 15-29.
  8. <13> SHE14658 - Bibliographic reference: Gardner, Julian. 1995. The tomb of Bishop Peter of Aquablanca in Hereford Cathedral. Medieval Art, Architecture and Archaeology at Hereford edited by Whitehead David, 94-105.
  9. <11> SHE14665 - Bibliographic reference: Cocke, Thomas. 1995. The architecture of Hereford Cathedral from the Reformation to the fall of the west tower. Medieval Art, Architecture and Archaeology at Hereford edited by Whitehead David, 173-176.
  10. <12> SHE14666 - Bibliographic reference: Whitehead, David. 1995. The mid-nineteenth-century restoration of Hereford cathedral by Lewis Knockalls Cottingham 1842-1850. Medieval Art, Architecture and Archaeology at Hereford edited by Whitehead David, 176-186.
  11. <15> SHE15184 - Unpublished Report: Vyce, D. 12/1998. Hereford Cathedral, Hereford. A report on salvage recording at Lady Arbour, Chapter House Yard and East of the College Cloisters. (Welsh Water Plc Repairs).. Archaeological Investigations Ltd. 397.
  12. <17> SHE15531 - Unpublished Report: Morriss, Richard K. 1996. Hereford Cathedral. A report and survey of the quatrefoil band on the west face of the central tower.. City of Hereford Archaeology Unit. 294.
  13. <19> SHE16018 - Bibliographic reference: Anon. A walk round Hereford Cathedral. Cathedral Guide.
  14. <18> SHE16045 - Article in serial: Buchanan-Brown, John. 1999. The Natural History of Herefordshire. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XLIX 1999 Part III. 379-403. XLIX 1999 Part III. Pages 392.
  15. <20> SHE16062 - Bibliographic reference: Eisel, John C. 1994. Spires. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XLVIII 1994 Part I. 13-22. XLVIII 1994 Part I. Pages 13.
  16. <21> SHE16103 - Bibliographic reference: Rhydderch, Ann. 1982. The Administration of the Diocese of Hereford under Bishop Mascall (1404-16). Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XLIV 1982 Part I. 59-63. XLIV 1982 Part I. Pages 59-63.
  17. <22> SHE16127 - Bibliographic reference: Hannah, G.W.. 1974. John Trillek, Bishop of Hereford. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XLI 1974 Part II. 173-179. XLI 1974 Part II. Pages 173-179.
  18. <23> SHE16128 - Bibliographic reference: Morgan, Penelope E.. 1974. James Bromwich and Hereford Cathedral Audley Chapel. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XLI 1974 Part II. 213-218. XLI 1974 Part II. Pages 213-218.
  19. <24> SHE16283 - Bibliographic reference: Powell, H.J.. 1970. The Eleventh-Century Norman Work in Hereford Cathedral. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XL 1970 Part I. 66-70. XL 1970 Part I. Pages 66.
  20. <26> SHE16358 - Bibliographic reference: Dunnicliff, Canon E.F.H.. 1962. Robert De Melun, Bishop of Hereford (1163-1167). Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXVII 1962 Part II. 123-134. XXXVII 1962 Part II. Pages 123.
  21. <28> SHE16371 - Bibliographic reference: Drinkwater, N.. 1957. The Chapter House. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXV 1957 Part III. 260-265. XXXV 1957 Part III. Pages 260.
  22. <29> SHE16372 - Bibliographic reference: Morgan, F.C.. 1957. Hereford Cathedral Bosses. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXV 1957 Part III. 265-267. XXXV 1957 Part III. Pages 265.
  23. <30> SHE16406 - Bibliographic reference: Winnington-Ingram, A.J.. 1953. The Rebuilding of Hereford Cathedral. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXIV 1953 Part II. 42-54. XXXIV 1953 Part II. Pages 42-54.
  24. <31> SHE16409 - Bibliographic reference: Morgan, F.C.. 1952. Hereford Cathedral Church. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXIV 1952 Part I. 10-13. XXXIV 1952 Part I. Pages 10.
  25. <32> SHE16418 - Bibliographic reference: Benson, Rev E G. 1949. The lost brass of the Cantilupe Shrine. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. XXXIII 1949 Part I. 68-76. XXXIII 1949 Part I. Pages 68.
  26. <33> SHE16444 - Bibliographic reference: Morgan, F.C.. 1936. Early Water Colour Drawings of Hereford Cathedral. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Vol for 1936 1937 1938 Part I (1936). 44-46. Vol for 1936, 1937, 1938 Part I (19367). Pages 44-46.
  27. <34> SHE16459 - Bibliographic reference: Marshall, George. 1930. The Shrine of St Thomas De Cantilupe, in Hereford Cathedral. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 1930. 34-50. 1930. Pages 34-50.
  28. <35> SHE16487 - Bibliographic reference: Clarke, W.E.H.. 1922. An Architectural Account of Hereford Cathedral. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 1922. 142-155. Part II 1922. Pages 142-155.
  29. <36> SHE16733 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 21/07/2002. 02-MB-0030. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. B/W.
  30. <37> SHE16734 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 21/07/2002. 02-MB-0031. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. B/W.
  31. <38> SHE16735 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 21/07/2002. 02-MB-0032. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. B/W.
  32. <44> SHE16924 - Bibliographic reference: Aylmer, G and Tiller, J (eds.). 2000. Hereford Cathedral, a history. Hambledon Press.
  33. <39> SHE17301 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 21/07/2002. 02-C-0056. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. Colour Slide.
  34. <40> SHE17302 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 21/07/2002. 02-C-0059. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. Colour Slide.
  35. <41> SHE17354 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 29/07/2002. 02-C-0094. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2002. Oblique. Colour Slide.
  36. <42> SHE17396 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 07/07/2003. 03-C-1036. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2003. Oblique. Colour Slide.
  37. <43> SHE17397 - Aerial Photograph: Musson, C R. 07/07/2003. 03-C-1037. Herefordshire Aerial Archaeological Survey 2003. Oblique. Colour Slide.
  38. <45> SHE18979 - Unpublished Report: Hurst, D., Baxter, I., Boylston, A., Pearson, E. and Weston, D.. 2003. Mappa Mundi Archive, Hereford: Assessment and Updated Project Design. Worcestershire Archaeological Service. 1136.
  39. <46> SHE19163 - Unpublished Report: Morriss, Richard K. and Shoesmith, Ron. 1997. The Cathedral Church of Hereford. An Archaeological Report on the East Face of the Lady Chapel. City of Hereford Archaeology Unit. 307.
  40. <16> SHE2217 - Unpublished Report: Anon. 06/1985. Hereford Cathedral. Interim report on the excavation for electricity cable trenches close to the west face of the Cathedral.. City of Hereford Archaeology Committee.
  41. <47> SHE23886 - Unpublished Report: Brekmoe, L. 12/2016. Special Air Service Memorial, Hereford Cathedral. Archaeological Mitigation Excavation.. Headland Archaeology Ltd. HAS1207.
  42. <5> SHE350 - Bibliographic reference: Royal Commission on Historical Monuments. 1931. Inventory of Monuments, Herefordshire South-West, Vol I. Herefordshire South-West, Vol 1. I,90.
  43. <3> SHE6331 - Booklet: Barrett, PL. 1980. Hereford Cathedral.
  44. <8> SHE8405 - Bibliographic reference: Geo. Ayliffe Poole. 1852. Bishops of the English Sees. ASR. II,32.
  45. <2> SHE9912 - Bibliographic reference: Marshall, George. 1949. Fonts in Herefordshire, Part I. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Pages 20-21.

Associated events

Protected status

  1. Conservation Area CON_AR_012: Central Area
  2. Area of Archaeological Importance
  3. Listed Building (I) 372287: CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF ST MARY AND ST ETHELBERT
  4. Area of Archaeological Importance: Hereford City Area of Archaeological Importance

Associated Historic Landscape Character Records

  1. HHE499 - Urbanisation - Urbanisation 2